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1A 10.10 - Basic Units
Demonstrates: Basic units of mass, length and time.
Description: Shows basic units of mass, length and time.
1A 10.20 - Standards of Mass
Demonstrates: Different Mass Scales.
Description: 1 lb. = 2.2 kg. | 1 m. = 39.37 in.
1A 30.41 - Blackboard Sphere
Demonstrates: Non-Euclidean geometry.
Description: 24" black sphere with stand.
1A 30.42 - Blackboard Hypersphere
Demonstrates: Non-Euclidean Geometry.
Description: 24" black sphere with stand.
1A 40.10 - Components of a Vector
Demonstrates: x-y-z axes.
Description: 3 wooden rods perpendicular to eachother with a common connecting end.
1A 60.10 - Powers of Ten
Demonstrates: Scaling.
Description: 7 min. video covering scales from the universe to the sub-atomic.
1C 10.27 - Velocity - Pasco Cars & Track
Demonstrates: Changes in velocity, momentum, collisions
Description: Car(s) on track and push. Add masses to change force needed to accelerate car. Uses motion detector to show real time graph of acceleration and/or collisons.
1C 20.10 - Free Fall in a Vacuum.
Demonstrates: Objects falling at the same rate in a vacuum.
Description: Feather, penny, a piece of paper all fall at the same rate when the chamber is evacuated.
1C 20.30 - Air Track as an Inclined Plane
Demonstrates: Acceleration.
Description: One end of the large air track is elevated and a car accelerates. Motion detector shows via a real time graph change in acceleration.
1C 30.10 - Free Fall Apparatus
Demonstrates: Gravitational constant of Earth, g; acceleration due to Earth's gravitational pull.
Description: When the bearing is released a timer is activated and stops when the bearing has traveled 2 meters.
1C 30.26 - Timed Free Fall
Demonstrates: Acceleration in free fall.
Description: A series of weights are spaced so that when dropped they hit the floor at equal intervals.
1D 10.11 - Sand Catcher
Demonstrates: Motion in two dimensions.
Description: Hinged board with a cup at the opposite end, a small balloon filled with sand and a stick prop. Knock out the stick and the balloon falls in the cup.
1D 15.20 - Race Track (small)
Demonstrates: Kinetic and potential energy.
Description: Parallel wooden race tracks that start and stop at the same positions but differ in overall length of path travelled.
1D 15.21 - Race Track (big)
Demonstrates: Potential and kinetic energies.
Description: Large rectangular peg board with two red tracks that start and end at the same place but differ in length by having peaks and valleys inserted. Two 1" bearings are used as race cars.
1D 40.10 - Center of Mass Dumbells
Demonstrates: Center of mass of an object in motion.
Description: Nerf dumbell with light off center in the arm.
1D 40.50 - Pendulum on Air Cart
Demonstrates: Center of mass of oscillating air car with double pendulum.
Description: Air can with single or double arm pendulum is caused to oscillate on air track.
1D 40.55 - Air Track Inch Worm
1D 40.55 - Air Track Inch Worm
Demonstrates: Center of Mass.
Description: Two air cars are tied together with a spring and oscillate about the combined center of mass.
1D 50.20 - Centripetal Force Apparatus
Demonstrates: Centripetal force.
Description: When spinning the two brass balls of different mass change positions to find common center of mass.
1D 50.40 - Pail of Water
Demonstrates: Centripetal force.
Description: Swing a pail of water in a vertical circle and watch the water remain in the pail.
1D 52.10 - Centrifugal Hoops
Demonstrates: Rotational Force.
Description: Two brass hoops set perpendicular to each other with a common axis mounted on an electric motor.
1D 55.30 - Rotating Disc with Objects
1D 55.30 - Rotating Disc with Objects
Demonstrates: Centrifugal force.
Description: Large disk with wood blocks rotates until they fly off.
1D 60.20 - Simultaneous Ball Drop
Demonstrates: Horizontal and vertical components of a trajectory are independent of each other.
Description: Horizontal and vertical components of a trajectory are independent of each other.
1D 60.30 - Monkey Hunter
Demonstrates: Trajectory motion. Objects fall at the same rate. Vertical and horizontal motion are independant of each other.
Description: An electromagnet holds a jug "monkey" that falls when the blow gun ejects a projectile.
1D 60.40 - Range of Gun
Demonstrates: Trajectory as a function of angle.
Description: Pasco projectile launcher with adjustable barrel and force.
Instructor Page
1D 60.41 - Trajectory Table
Demonstrates: Trajectory motion as a function of energy.
Description: A square table on an incline with a variable ramp. A ball is released and its trajectory can be observed. The ball's course is dependent on where it is released on the ramp.
1E 10.10 - Moving Car Cart
Demonstrates: Frame of reference.
Description: Pasco car and track on top of moving cart.
1E 10.20 - Frames of Reference Film
1E 10.20 - Frames of Reference Film
Demonstrates: Frames of reference.
Description: VHS transfer of 16 mm. film.
1E 20.10 - Foucault's Pendulum
Demonstrates: Relative Motion.
Description: Pendulum that rotates and oscillates.
1E 30.34 - Coriolis Water Table
1E 30.34 - Coriolis Water Table
Demonstrates: Coriolis Effect.
Description: A flexible rubber tube with water flowing in it is placed on a rotating platform. When rotated the tube deflects.
1F 20.10 - String Breaker
Demonstrates: Inertia.
Description: An iron ball is suspended vertically by monofilament and a rod is suspended from the iron ball. If the rod is given a quick jerk the bottom string breaks. If the rod is pulled slowly the upper string breaks.
1F 20.20 - Smash Your Hand
Demonstrates: Inertia of rest.
Description: A lead brick covers a flat hand, the brick is struck by a hammer.
1F 20.25 - Bed of Nails
1F 20.25 - Bed of Nails
Demonstrates: Inertia of rest.
Description: A standard cinder block is smashed atop a person in between two boards with nails.
1F 20.31 - Table Cloth Pull
Demonstrates: Inertia of rest.
Description: A piece of cloth is yanked out from under various objects resting onto top without moving the placement.
1F 20.32 - Hammer and Colored Disks
Demonstrates: Inertia.
Description: 7 colored 2" thick disks and a hammer.
1F 30.10 - Persistence of Motion
Demonstrates: Inertia of motion. A body remains in constant motion until another force acts on it.
Description: Air car on track.
1G 10.10 - Measuring Force
Demonstrates: Force is needed to create an acceleration.
Description: An air car with mass added is pulled with a spring scale. Or a Pasco car is pulled with a motion sensor and real time data is collected to show graphiclly to class.
1G 10.20 - Accelertaion of a car with Falling Mass
Demonstrates: Acceleration.
Description: An air car is caused to accelerate by a hanging mass and pulley system. Or Pasco car and motion detector is used instead of air track.
1G 10.30 - Weight of Mass
Demonstrates: Force of gravity on a mass.
Description: Mass hanging from a spring scale.
1G 10.31 - Mass with Two Springs
1G 10.31 - Mass with Two Springs
Demonstrates: Force on a spring system.
Description: A mass hangs from a spring that hangs from a spring.
1G 10.40 - Atwood's Machine
Demonstrates: Acceleration.
Description: Pulley with small and large radius.
1G 20.30 - Drop Pail with Hole
1G 20.30 - Drop Pail with Hole
Demonstrates: Accelerated reference frames.
Description: A leaking plastic bottle with cork at bottom is dropped while leaking water.
1G 20.45 - Dropped Slinky
Demonstrates: Accelerated frames of reference.
Description: A partially extended slinky is dropped.
1G 20.87 - Accelerometer
Demonstrates: Accelerated frames of reference.
Description: A plexiglass tube filled with water and ping pong.
1G 60.10 - Mass on a Scale on a Scale
1G 60.10 - Mass on a Scale on a Scale
Demonstrates: Complex System of Force, mass and scale.
Description: A Mass is suspendend from a force scale and then another scale is put underneath and gradually raised to lift the mass.
1H 10.01 - CO2 Jet Cart
Demonstrates: Action and reaction.
Description: Cart with CO2 tanks for propellant.
1H 10.10 - Push Off
Demonstrates: Action and reaction.
Description: Person standing on a large skateboard pushes off against a wall.
1H 10.20 - Air Car Sailboat
Demonstrates: Action and reaction.
Description: Battery powered air car has a sail put in front of fan.
1H 10.25 - Rotor
Demonstrates: How a helicopter rotor works
Description: Toy propeller
1J 10.12 - Center of Mass Pegboards
Demonstrates: Center of Mass.
Description: Pegboards of various shapes and sizes suspended from a rod and clamp.
1J 10.30 - Teeter Totter
Demonstrates: Center of Gravity.
Description: A wooden plank evenly divided into four equal parts set on an elevated rod so as to balance as a teeter totter with masses to distribute at various distances from each other. Also availible in meter stick form.
1J 11.10 - Center of Mass Tower
Demonstrates: Exceeding Center of Gravity.
Description: Two part wooden cylinder with free standing lean.
1J 11.20 - Leaning Tower of Lire
Demonstrates: Exceeding Center of Gravity.
Description: Stacking of equal planks.
1J 11.50 - Rolling Uphill
Demonstrates: Change in center of mass.
Description: A symmetrical double cone wood piece is placed on the narrow end of a triangular track with a slight incline at the opposite end. As the cone slips to find its center of mass the piece pulls itself uphill on the track.
1J 20.20 - Center of Mass Dumbell
Demonstrates: Center of mass of a rotating body in trajectory.
Description: A plastic tube with a light inside and Nerf balls at ends. Arc made by the light will show center of mass.
1J 30.25 - Strongman
Demonstrates: Resolution of Forces.
Description: Two unequal lengths of rope support a mass at different angles with spring scales to measure the force on each rope.
1J 30.30 - Resolution of Forces
Demonstrates: Vector addition, resolution of forces.
Description: Two spring balances hung with a mass suspended off center between them.
Instructor Page
1J 30.40 - Horizontal Boom
Demonstrates: Resolution of forces on a horizontal boom.
Description: A fixed boom with a hanging mass is supported by a rope at a given angle. The tension on the supporting rope is measured with a spring scale.
1J 40.20 - Meter Stick Balance
Demonstrates: Center of Gravity; torque.
Description: New York balance.
1K 10.20 - Ladder Against a Wall
Demonstrates: Torque forces.
Description: A model ladder is placed against a box and a weight is moved up the ladder until the ladder begins to slip.
1K 20.10 - Friction Blocks
Demonstrates: Frictional forces.
Description: A block with various surfaces is pulled with a spring scale. Or use motion detector instead of spring scale to collect real time data.
1K 20.35 - Angle of Repose
Demonstrates: Angle of repose.
Description: An incline plane is lifted until a block begins to slide.
1K 30.10 - Bed of Nails Video
Demonstrates: Distribution of pressure.
Description: Dr. David Wolfe defies death! And John keeps his job.
1L 10.30 - Cavendish Balance
Demonstrates: Gravitational attraction of mass.
Description: Cavendish balance.
1L 20.10 - Gravitational Well
Demonstrates: Orbits, ellpises, escape velocity.
Description: Rubber sheet with various spherical masses to orbit around a well.
1L 20.50 - Ellipsi Drawer
Demonstrates: Ellipsi.
Description: Two suction cups, string & chalk are used to draw ellipsi on chalkboard.
1M 10.25 - Pile Driver
Demonstrates: Work.
Description: Lead brick pile driver smashes aluminum can.
1M 20.10 - Pulleys
Demonstrates: Simple machines.
Description: An assortment of pulleys that can be rigged in several ways.
Instructor Page
1M 40.10 - Nose Basher
Demonstrates: Conservation of energy.
Description: 25Kg. bowling ball is suspended from ceiling, brought up against face and released.
1M 40.17 - Simple Pendulum
1M 40.17 - Simple Pendulum
Demonstrates: Conservation of Energy.
Description: At the lowest point of its swing, all of the gravitational potential energy Utop that was stored in the pendulum in raising it to the top of its swing gets converted to kinetic energy Kbottom.
Instructor Page
1M 40.20 - Loop the Loop (Large)
Demonstrates: Angular momentum.
Description: Aluminum track bent around itself to form a loop in the middle with one end angled to be used as a starting point for a steel bearing to be rolled down. The opposite end has a tube to stop the ball after release.
Instructor Page
1M 40.25 - Loop the Loop (Small)
Demonstrates: Potential and kinetic energy.
Description: A smaller version of the large loop the loop that has its own catch box.
1M 40.41 - Ballistic Pendulum
Demonstrates: Conservation of energy.
Description: A drilled brass ball is fired by a spring gun into a catcher cup that is suspended as a pendulum. The kinetic energy of the ball drives the pendulum upward where a rack and prawl hold it at its highest point.
1M 40.50 - Big Yo-Yo
Demonstrates: Conservation of energy.
Description: Big Yo-Yo.
1M 40.67 - Energy in a Spring
Demonstrates: Potential and kinetic energy.
Description: The difference between KE and PE is shown by masses in motion or sitting on the compressed spring.
1M 40.90 - Rattleback
Demonstrates: Conservation of energy.
Description: Rattleback (large).
1N 22.10 - Jet Cart
Demonstrates: Newton's Third Law.
Description: Large flatbed cart with CO2 tank propellants.
1N 30.10 - Newton's Cradle
Demonstrates: Conservation of momentum.
Description: Probably the biggest Newton's Cradle you'll ever see.
1N 40.10 - Air Pucks
Demonstrates: Two-dimensional collisions.
Description: Two large air pucks can be collided to show how the angle before the collision effects the angle after the collision.
1Q 10.10 - Moment of Inertia Batons
Demonstrates: Moment of inertia.
Description: Four rods with masses inserted at different areas of the tube to create differing moment arms.
1Q 10.20 - Rotating Rods (Large)
Demonstrates: Rotational forces.
Description: Long aluminum rod with movable masses at each end. The mechanism is mounted on a pylon.
1Q 10.30 - Inclined Plane (Large)
Demonstrates: Inertia.
Description: Large plane that can be varied in height with various circular objects to roll down.
Instructor Page
1Q 10.40 - Inclined Plane (Small)
Demonstrates: Friction.
Description: Small plane that can be varied in height, pulley system and blocks of various surfaces can be used.
1Q 20.10 - Centripetal Force Apparatus
Demonstrates: Rotational Forces.
Description: A tube with a rotating pulley. A string runs through it with one end having a fixed mass, the other end has a variable mass.
1Q 20.20 - Rattleback
Demonstrates: Change in direction of rotational energy.
Description: A large block of wood with a diagonally symmetrical curved bottom surface.
1Q 20.25 - Rattleback (Small)
Demonstrates: Change in direction of rotational energy.
Description: Desktop version of the large rattleback.
1Q 20.30 - Model Watts Governor
Demonstrates: Rotational forces.
Description: V shaped apparatus with two ball masses at the ends. The center axis is attached to an electric motor.
1Q 30.15 - Bicycle Wheel (Variant 1)
Demonstrates: Angular momentum.
Description: Bicycle wheel with handles at axle, electric motor.
1Q 40.10 - Spinning Chair
Demonstrates: Angular momentum.
Description: Rotating chair with dumbbells attached to a pylon.
1Q 40.20 - Rotating Platform
Demonstrates: Rate of rotation.
Description: Rotating platform with large plywood disk.
1Q 40.40 - Accelerometers
Demonstrates: Direction of angular momentum.
Description: Plastic tube filled with water and a golf ball.
1Q 50.20 - Bicycle Wheel (Variant 2)
Demonstrates: Direction of angular momentum.
Description: Bicycle wheel suspended while spinning.
1Q 50.30 - Gyroscope
Demonstrates: Torque.
Description: A 1kg and 1lb mass to show to class.
1Q 50.40 - Single Arm Gyroscope
Demonstrates: Precession.
Description: 12" aluminum gas bearing with a single rod and a movable mass mounted on a pylon.
1Q 50.50 - Double Arm Gyroscope
Demonstrates: Nutation, precession.
Description: 12" aluminum ball with a rod running through it to attach variable masses. Spins on a pocket of air.
1Q 60.20 - Tops
Demonstrates: Centrifugal acceleration.
Description: Two toy tops - one hand spun, the other requires a string, a fling and practice.
1R 10.10 - Hooke's Law
Demonstrates: The determination of a spring constant.
Description: A spring is stretched out as masses are added. The amount of stretch is measured against a 2 meter stick and shown to be a constant value each time the same amount of mass is added.
1R 50.20 - Molecular Models
Demonstrates: The structure of an atom.
Description: An enlarged view of a molecule to show how it is arranged.
1R 50.60 - Density Blocks
Demonstrates: Difference in density with volume constant.
Description: Six blocks made of various materials but of equal volume.
2A 10.40 - Pulsed Water Spout
Demonstrates: Surface tension.
Description: Water is regularly pulsed out of spouts so as when viewed with a strobe light the shape of the droplets is visible.
2A 10.50 - Soap Bubbles
2A 10.50 - Soap Bubbles
Demonstrates: Surface tension as a function of area.
Description: Various wire frames to dropped into soap solution.
2A 10.60 - Soap Bubble Tension
2A 10.60 - Soap Bubble Tension
Demonstrates: The tension of a soap film.
Description: A string in a metal wire frame is inserted into a soap solution, the area in the string is popped and the remaining soap film will pull the string into a circle.
2B 20.40 - Pascal's Principle Tubes
Demonstrates: Properties of fluids.
Description: Water rises to the same level in all tubes.
2B 30.10 - Crush the Can
Demonstrates: Atmospheric pressure.
Description: Fill a can with boiling water and cap tightly then watch as the can collapses as the water cools.
2B 30.50 - Boyle's Law Apparatus
Demonstrates: Change in pressure creates a change in pressure.
Description: A calibrated glass syringe is attached to an absolute-pressure gauge. Also comes with a copper sphere.
2B 40.20 - Archimedes Principle
Demonstrates: Water diplaced is equal to the volume of the object displacing the water
Description: Water is displaced by a mass and spilled into a tray which will fill a cup that the mass fits in.
2B 40.30 - Cartesian Diver
Demonstrates: Water Pressure
2B 40.40 - Hot Air Balloon
Demonstrates: Buoyancy
Description: Large hot air balloon
2B 40.40 - Density Tube
Demonstrates: Differences in densities.
Description: Fluids of two different densities in the same tube can be mixed together then they separate again.
2B 60.10 - Hero's Fountain
Demonstrates: Fluid dynamics.
Description: Air forces water above its source.
2C 10.10 - Water trajectory
Demonstrates: Water trajectory as function of pressure.
Description: An upright clear, plastic tube with five corked holes at equidistant spacing.
2C 20.30 - Bernoulli Effect (Beach Ball)
Demonstrates: Fluid dynamics.
Description: A beach ball levitates in mid-air.
2C 20.40 - Bernoulli Principle (Plates)
Demonstrates: Fluid dynamics.
Description: One metal plate will couple with another due to the reduced pressure of fast moving air.
2C 20.50 - U-Tube
Demonstrates: Fluid dynamics.
Description: Fluid level will rise or fall at one end of a U shaped tube when the other end has fast moving air moving over the other end or taken away.
3A 10.20 - Three Pendulums
Demonstrates: Pendulum period is independent of mass.
Description: Two pendulums with the same length arm but different masses, a third pendulum with a different length arm as the previous two but with same mass as one of them.
3A 10.30 - Torsional Pendulum
Demonstrates: Torsional oscillation.
Description: Two types: one cylinder, one triangle with screw rods to adjust masses at ends.
3A 15.10 - Physical Pendulum
Demonstrates: A variation of arm type for pendulums.
Description: Two types: meter sticks with hole drilled at ends, metal bars with fixed masses.
3A 20.10 - Mass on a Spring
Demonstrates: Simple harmonic motion.
Description: Spring and various masses.
3A 40.10 - Harmonic Motion and Rotating Marker.
Demonstrates: Relationship between harmonic and oscillation motion.
Description: Light source, mass on a spring, circular disk with paint cap. A specific oscillating mass for any given spring will appear to be in synch with the rotation of the disk.
3A 50.11 - Dampened Texas Tower
3A 50.11 - Dampened Texas Tower
Demonstrates: Dampened Oscillation
Description: Texas Tower with cylinder of water to dampen mass on spring oscillation. Water will dampen system from reaching resonance.
3A 60.10 - Tacoma Narrows Video
Demonstrates: Driven mechanical resonance.
Description: Film of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapse.
3A 60.20 - Texas Tower
Demonstrates: Resonance.
Description: Variable oscillation driven mass and spring.
3A 70.10 - Wilberforce Pendulum
Demonstrates: Simultaneous torsional and oscillational motion.
Description: Cylindrical mass painted black and white and fixed to a spring.
3A 70.20 - Coupled Pendulum (Large)
Demonstrates: Coupled harmonic motion.
Description: Two side by side pendulums connected together by a spring at the mass ends.
3A 70.30 - Coupled Pendulum (Small)
Demonstrates: Coupled harmonic motion.
Description: Two side by side pendulums connected together by a spring at the mass ends.
3A 95.52 - Chaotic Pendulum (Old Model)
Demonstrates: Chaotic motion.
Description: Two pendulums that are attached at the hip.
3B 10.10 - Standing Waves
Demonstrates: onstructive interference.
Description: A rubber rope is attached to the wall. Instructor is the oscillator.
3B 10.30 - Black Wave Table
Demonstrates: Standing waves, reflected waves.
Description: Carefully move the end rod up and down to create wave.
Instructor Page
3B 10.35 - Red Wave Table
Demonstrates: Standing waves, reflected waves.
Description: Carefully move the end rod up and down to create wave.
Instructor Page
3B 10.50 - The Sine Wave
Demonstrates: Phase and harmonic components of the sine wave.
Description: A mechanical representation of a sine wave.
3B 20.20 - Anchored Slinky
Demonstrates: Transverse and longitudinal wave motion.
Description: A spring laid down on its side, fixed at one end.
3B 20.25 - Slinky
Demonstrates: Waves.
Description: A tight steel spiral. Good Great Fun!
3B 22.20 - Flame Tube (Sonic Tube O' Fire)
Demonstrates: Wave propagation.
Description: Up to 9 standing waves can be illustrated. Lower frequencies causes fewer waves.
3B 30.30 - Bell in a Vacuum
Demonstrates: Sound does not travel in a vacuum.
Description: A bell is inside a bell jar which can be evacuated.
3B 39.10 - Tin Can Phone
Demonstrates: Sound travels through a medium other than air.
Description: Sound travels through a metal spring from one end of the phone to the other.
3B 40.10 - Doppler Effect Arm
Demonstrates: Sound frequency changes.
Description: A Sonalert siren swings around to show effect.
3B 40.20 - Doppler Effect Ball
Demonstrates: Doppler effect on sound.
Description: A Nerf ball with a small speaker inside that can be thrown around by students.
3B 45.15 - Ripple Tank
Demonstrates: Concept of light waves.
Description: Shadows from waves created in the tank are projected on to a screen.
3B 50.40 - Moiré Pattern Transparencies
Demonstrates: Two-source interference.
Description: Use two transparencies with overhead projector. Rotate top sheet for effect.
3B 60.10 - Differential Tuning Forks
Demonstrates: Changing frequencies.
Description: Stops can be moved to change the pitch.
3B 60.20 - Beats
Demonstrates: Pure tones with slightly different frequencies.
Description: Beats occur when one speaker's frequency varies slightly from the other's.
3B 60.40 - Metronome
Demonstrates: Beats.
Description: An adjustable time keeping device found in almost every piano teacher's home.
3B 70.10 - Coupled Tuning Forks
Demonstrates: Louder sound at same frequency.
Description: Tuning fork can be placed on the resonance box.
3C 10.10 - Ear Drum Demos
Demonstrates: How the ear drum operates.
Description: One is similar to a drum. When you thump on it a puff of air can be felt at the other end of the tube. The other is a liquid filled beaker. When pressure is applied on the top the ball bearing inside moves.
3C 20.20 - Differential & Sympathetic Tuning Fork Set
Demonstrates: Beat phenomena and resonance.
Description: A set of two resonance tuning forks, one is adjustable for different pitch.
3C 40.10 - Lecture Hall Acoustics
Demonstrates: Nodes.
Description: Two speakers emit a continuous tone. Students walk around until they find a node.
3C 50.10 - Introduction to Sound
Demonstrates: That different sounds have different wave patterns.
Description: The keyboard's signal is displayed on the large overhead screen using the Proxima projector and a computer input.
3C 50.20 - Sound Meters
Demonstrates: Sound levels in decibels.
Description: A hand held meter.
3C 60.10 - Electronic Organ
Demonstrates: A large variety of sounds.
Description: A basic battery operated electronic keyboard.
3D 20.10 - Sonometer
Demonstrates: Effect of tension on a plucked wire.
Description: Masses are hung at the end of each wire.
3D 22.30 - Guitar
Demonstrates: String as a medium for sound and coupled oscillators.
Description: A classical guitar.
3D 30.20 - Bottles
Demonstrates: Closed-end tubes.
Description: Various bottles making various sounds when air is blown across their openings.
3D 30.25 - Harmonica
Demonstrates: Musical notes.
Description: It's an old wood and steel harmonica.
3D 30.30 - Siren Tube
Demonstrates: Wind rushing past an opened end tube and making lots of noise.
Description: Swing the tube overhead in a circle.
3D 30.40 - Closed-end Tubes
Demonstrates: Sound in a closed tube.
Description: Tubes that are closed at each end.
3D 30.60 - Kundt's Tube
Demonstrates: The velocity of sound.
Description: A closed end tube that can be adjusted to change the frequencies inside.
3D 32.10 - Organ Pipe
Demonstrates: Changing resonance.
Description: An adjustable closed flue pipe.
3D 32.40 - Pipe Organ
Demonstrates: Open flue pipes made of metal.
Description: A metal canister with organ pipes attached. Air flow is regulated by levers.
3D 32.50 - Squeaky Bear
Demonstrates: Loudness due to air being forced through a small hole.
Description: When squeaky bear is smacked on a hard surface he squeaks.
3D 32.60 - Flute
Demonstrates: Notes.
Description: A small plastic flute.
3D 32.70 - Recorder
Demonstrates: Musical Notes.
Description: An early member of the flute family. Also known as an English flute.
3D 40.10 - Xylophone
Demonstrates: Pitch.
Description: An alternative to tuning forks.
3D 40.30 - Chladni Plates
Demonstrates: Shows how the shape affects the resonance modes.
Description: Different shaped plates are placed on a oscillator and sprinkled with salt and nodes are seen.
3D 42.10 - Drum
Demonstrates: Vibrations of an ideal membrane.
Description: A basic snare drum.
3D 46.10 - Tuning Forks
Demonstrates: Different frequencies through pitch.
Description: When struck each fork has its own pitch / frequency.
3E 40.10 - Megaphones
Demonstrates: Directing sound waves.
Description: Conical devices used to focus sound waves.
4A 10.10 - Thermometry
Demonstrates: Temperature measurement.
Description: Projection thermometer shows temperature variation between hot and cold water.
4A 10.20 - Galileo's Thermometer
Demonstrates: Temperature affecting various denisities of materials.
Description: A set of glass spheroid buoys of varying density in a glass cylinder arranged so the lowest floating ball represents the temperature. History and sources.
4A 20.10 - Water Thermometer
Demonstrates: Expansion due to rising temperature.
Description: An Erlenmeyer flask and extension tube filled with water that rises when heated.
4A 30.10 - Bi-metal Strip
Demonstrates: Expansion due to heat.
Description: A bimetal strip is heated and curls because one side expands more than the other. There is also a large (41") bimetal strip available for this demo but it gets heavy.
4A 30.20 - Balls and Rings
Demonstrates: Expansion due to heat.
Description: Ball & Rings. Heating the ring allows the ball to pass through it.
Instructor Page
4B 20.20 - Thermal Conduction in Gasses
Demonstrates: Convection due to heat.
Description: A convection chamber with two chimneys with a lighted candle under one. Smoke introduced into one side is pulled down and expelled through other.
4B 20.40 - Greenhouse Effect
Demonstrates: Glass transmits visible and near IR wavelengths but is opaque to longer wavelengths.
Description: An heat lamp is placed near a thermometer and temperature is marked. Thermometer is then placed in a covered glass beaker and higher temperature is noted.
4B 30.10 - Thermal Conductivity
Demonstrates: Heat conduction.
Description: A copper rod that has steel ball bearings attached to it with wax.
4B 30.20 - Thermal Conductivity of Metals
Demonstrates: How different metals conduct heat at different rates.
Description: Six rods of different metals radiate from a central hub. Each rod has a steel ball at the end of it. When the center hub is heated the balls drop off at varying rates depending on the thermal conductivity of each metal.
4B 40.20 - Thermal Radiation
Demonstrates: Radiant energy of heat.
Description: The radiant energy of a candle is focused into a beam and is detected by a radiometer.
4B 50.10 - Incredible Shrinking Rubber Bands
Demonstrates: Heat from the lamps will make the rubber bands shrink.
Description: Weighted rubber bands are placed in front of lamps, bands shrink instead of stretch.
4B 60.20 - Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
Demonstrates: How heat and friction are related to work.
Description: Temperature changes caused by friction are measured and work is calculated.
4B 60.30 - Calorimetry
Demonstrates: Temperature change due to heat.
Description: Hot lead shot is placed in a beaker of water to raise the temperature of system.
4B 70.10 - Fire Syringe
Demonstrates: A change in pressure causes a change in temperature.
Description: Cotton fibers are combusted with a rapid change in pressure.
4C 31.30 - Drinking Birds
Demonstrates: Vapor pressure changes due to temperature changes.
Description: Birds "drink" as temperature changes cause liquid to fill the evacuated space.
4C 32.10 - Relative Humidity
Demonstrates: Affect of humidity on temperature.
Description: Two versions are available. Dew point method creates condensation on the outside of a steel beaker. The wet bulb method measures the temperature of humidified air.
4C 33.50 - Franklin's Palm Glass
Demonstrates: Change of state.
Description: When one bulb is held in your hand body heat causes the volatile liquid inside to boil.
4C 50.10 - Thermal Models
Demonstrates: Pressure, temperature and volume.
Description: A three dimension graph for H2O and CO2.
4D 10.10 - Brownian Motion
4D 10.10 - Brownian Motion
Demonstrates: Brownian motion: latex particles in wet paint undergo Brownian motion, resulting in shimmering speckle pattern. In dry paint, speckle pattern is fixed if observer does not move eyes.
Description: Bright laser passes through a lens to expand beam to approx 2 inch diameter. Strip of cardboard with dried paint is suspended above a can of wet paint. Instructor first shows speckle pattern on dry paint. When observers slowly scan head back and forth, speckle pattern shimmers. There are illusions about which way pattern “slides,” that are fun to discuss. Observers can be polled by raising of hands and it will be seen that students disagree on perception of speckle pattern sliding. Speckle pattern can be seen from back of room. When observers remain still, the speckle pattern appears fixed.
4D 20.20 - Radiometers
Demonstrates: Differential absorption of radiation.
Description: Vane spins because the black side absorbs more radiation than the white does.
4D 30.10 - Molecular Motion Kit
Demonstrates: Kinetic energy of gasses.
Description: Same as in mechanics. Small steel BB's are placed on a mechanical shaker. Speed can be varied to show heat input. An overhead projector is used for the display of movement.
4E 20.10 - Boyle's Law Apparatus (Ideal Gas Law)
Demonstrates: Change in pressure equals a change in volume.
Description: A calibrated glass syringe is attached to an absolute-pressure gauge. Also comes with a copper sphere.
4E 30.10 - Ideal Gas Law
Demonstrates: Ideal gas law (PV=nRT).
Description: An air tank that can be heated is attached to a Boyden pressure gauge.
4F 30.10 - Stirling Engine
Demonstrates: A heat engine.
Description: Engine is run by changes in air pressure due to temperature changes.
4F 30.10A - Stirling Engine (small)
Demonstrates: Heat engine
Description: Engine is run by changes in air pressure due to temperature difference
5A 10.10 - Glass and Plastic Rods with Silk and Fur
Demonstrates: Electrostatics.
Description: Rubbing the rod with silk or fur charges the rod which then attracts the rod on the stand.
5A 10.20 - Electrophorus
Demonstrates: Charge transfer and storage.
Description: A charge can be created by hand and stored for later use.
5A 20.10 - Spin Electroscope
Demonstrates: Electric fields.
Description: Bringing a charged rod near one of the needles causes it to start spinning.
5A 20.20 - Pith Ball Electroscope
Demonstrates: Positive and negative charges.
Description: Charge is transferred to the balls which then repel each other.
5A 20.30 - Suspended Copper Rod
Demonstrates: Electrostatics.
Description: The copper rod is attracted by the glass rod and repelled by the plastic rod.
5A 22.20 - Projected Electroscope
Demonstrates: Electrostatics.
Description: Foil leaf in electroscope is deflected when a charge is put on the top sphere.
5A 40.10 - Transfer Charge Spheres
Demonstrates: Charge transference.
Description: A charge can be transferred to these hollow spheres.
5A 40.20 - Braun Electroscope
Demonstrates: Charge detection.
Description: Vane is deflected by a charge.
5A 40.40 - Hollow Globe
Demonstrates: Faraday's Ice Pail experiment showing elctrostatic charge only resides on the outside of a conductor.
Description: Sphere is charged then you can measure the charges inside and out.
5A 40.50 - Electrostatic Wind Test
Demonstrates: Interaction of electric charges that are at rest.
Description: An electron "wind" causes a flame to be deflected when the generator is on.
5A 40.60 - Charge Balance
Demonstrates: Attraction and repulsion of charge.
Description: The charged rod is either attracted or repulsed and an imbalance occurs.
5A 40.70 - Charge Chimes
Demonstrates: Conduction of a charge.
Description: One bell hangs from a chain while the other hangs by monofilament. When charge is applied the bell rings.
5A 40.80 - Charged Can 'O Worms
Demonstrates: Transfer of charge.
Description: A charge can be transferred to the cans and then detected by an electroscope.
5A 50.10 - Wimshurst Machine
Demonstrates: Electrostatics.
Description: Unit produces a charge that is stored in a Leyden jar.
5A 50.30 - Van de Graaff Generator
Demonstrates: Positive and negative charges.
Description: The generator top becomes charged which can be transferred to another object.
5B 20.10 - Faraday Ice Pail
Demonstrates: Gauss's Law.
Description: A charged conducting ball is placed inside a metal cup. The charge from the ball is transferred to the pail's outer surface. Show the charge transference by use of electroscope.
5B 30.10 - Grass Seed Electric Field
Demonstrates: Electrical field lines.
Description: Seeds are placed in a culture dish with pieces of aluminum foil on bottom. When high voltage is applied seeds align with the field making the pattern of field lines visible.
5B 30.15 - Grass Seed Electric Field with Van de Graaff Gener
Demonstrates: Electrical field lines.
Description: Seeds are placed in a culture dish with pieces of aluminum foil on bottom. When high voltage is applied seeds align with the field making the pattern of field lines visible.
5C 10.20 - Parallel Plate Capacitor
Demonstrates: Capacitance.
Description: A charge can be put onto the plates by using the electrophorus. The charge is then detected using an electrostatic voltmeter. Changing the distance between the plates changes the voltage.
5C 20.10 - Capacitor with Dielectric Sheet
Demonstrates: Insulators.
Description: A non-conducting material is placed between the two plates to decrease potential.
5C 20.30 - Leyden Jar
Demonstrates: Principles of capacitors.
Description: Stores a charge from an electrostatic generator.
5C 30.20 - Big Bang
Demonstrates: Stored energy.
Description: Energy is stored in a bank of capacitors. When suddenly discharged a big bang occurs.
5D 10.10 - Voltage Divider
Demonstrates: Potential affected by a resistor.
Description: Description: A rheostat is used as a voltage divider to show how to produce any voltage up to the maximum of the source.
5D 10.30 - Rheostats
Demonstrates: Resistance.
Description: Voltage and current are varied as slider is moved.
5D 20.10 - Resistance as a Function of Temperature
Demonstrates: Resistance.
Description: A small bulb is attached to powersupply by a coil of copper wire. After coil of wire is placed in liquid nitrogen the bulb becomes brighter due to decreased resistance. Put coil in boiling water to increase resistance.
5D 40.10 - Jacob's Ladder
Demonstrates: High voltage phenomenon.
Description: High voltage from a transformer is applied to electrodes. The narrow spacing at the bottom promotes electrical breakdown of the air. The conducting path of the discharge heats up and rises.
5E 50.10 - Thermocouple
Demonstrates: As an example of thermal energy being converted to electrical energy, thermoelectric current is observed.
Description: A temperature difference between two ends of a conductor results in a potential difference between the two ends. The size and polarity of the potential difference depends on the type of metal. A thermocouple is formed when two dissimilar metals are joined at one end. When the joined end is kept at a different temperature from the open ends, a potential difference is maintained between the open ends. This potential difference can be used to drive current through a galvanometer.
5E 50.20 - Electrical Equivalent of Heat
Demonstrates: Shows that electrical power causes heat.
Description: 10' of 20 gauge wire is strung between two carts. As voltage in the wire is increased the wire will heat and break.
5F 15.25 - Bird on a Wire
Demonstrates: Potential difference on a power line.
Description: A "bird" is molded with gun-cotton and "perched" on a nichrome wire. When the two aluminum sections touch both a hot wire and the ground top wire, poof, the bird disappears.
5F 20.50 - Series and Parallel Circuits
Demonstrates: Series and parallel circuits.
Description: One shorting bar, one 150 Watt and three 40 Watt light bulbs can be arranged in various series and parallel combinations to demonstrate current flow and voltage drop as shown by the intensity of each light bulb.
5F 30.11 - Light The Bulb
Demonstrates: Capacitor storing charge
Description: Charge a capacitor with DC and discharge through a light bulb.
5F 30.30 - Big Circuit Board
Demonstrates: Combinations of R, C and L circuits.
Description: By using the plug-ins and wires several different types of circuits can be created with the "physicist's Lego set." About ten different experiments can be done with the big board.
5F 30.35 - RC Circuit
Demonstrates: Current and voltage in RC circuits
Description: A Tektronix 2445 oscilloscope is used to display charge and discharge times of a capacitor along with the voltage across the resistor. Clearly demonstrates voltage drops across capacitors and resistors
5F 30.40 - Battery & Bulb
Demonstrates: Series and parallel circuits.
Description: A simple set up of two batteries in a holder with two alligator clip leads and bulbs.
5G 10.10 - Assorted Magnets
Demonstrates: Magnetic properties
Description: Various magnets of differing sizes, shapes
5G 10.15 - Lodestone
Demonstrates: Magnetism au natural
Description: This rock is a natural magnet.
5G 20.30 - Magnetic Domain Model
Demonstrates: Electromagnetic fields.
Description: Compasses are placed around a wire. Current is applied and needles are deflected.
5G 30.11 - Materials In B-Field
Demonstrates: Paramagnetism, Diamagnetism, Ferromagnetism
5G 40.10 - Hysteresis Loop
Demonstrates: Closed curve in a graph of B versus H.
Description: The magnetic field intensity is first increased and then decreased causing the loop.
5G 50.50 - Meissner Effect
Demonstrates: Levitation of a magnet above a superconductor.
Description: A superconducting disc is chilled in liquid nitrogen. A magnet at rest on the disc will rise and levitate as the disc transitions into the superconducting state. Internal magnetic fields are expelled and surface currents are set up (Meissner effect). The magnet can be moved in mid-air and can be spun around, inducing surface currents which prevent magnetic fields from penetrating the superconducting disc.
5H 10.20 - Oersted's Effect
Demonstrates: Deflection of a compass needle near a current carrying wire.
Description: Oersted observed that a compass needle placed near a wire deflected when current flowed. In this demo, a long compass needle deflects one way when current flows in a nearby wire. When the direction of current is reversed, a different deflection is seen.
5H 10.30 - Magnetic Field Lines
Demonstrates: Magnetic field lines
Description: Iron filings sprinkled on a plastic sheet align with the magnetic field of a magnet placed below the sheet. The pattern of magnetic field lines can be seen.
5H 10.31 - Magnetic Needle
Demonstrates: Horizontal and vertical components of earth's magnetic field; magnetic deflection due to currents.
Description: A magnetic needle is mounted in a dip circle which can be rotated. When it is horizontal, the needle points in the direction of the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic field. When the dip circle is rotated to the vertical plane, the needle indicates the dip angle of the magnetic field. Alternatively, current can be passed through the brass conductors around the needle to demonstrate magnetic deflection due to a current.
5H 15.20 - Induced Electrical Field
Demonstrates: Faraday's Law, motional emf, induced currents, energy conversion.
Description: As a coil on a pendulum passes between the poles of an electromagnet, induced currents cause a small bulb to light. The pendulum swings freely when the electromagnet is off. When the magnet is turned on, the amplitude of swing decreases on each pass showing conversion of gravitational energy to kinetic energy to electromagnetic energy to thermal energy. This demonstration can be done as a good introduction to demonstration 5K 20.10.
5H 15.30 - Solenoids
Demonstrates: Magnetic field of a solenoid.
Description: May be used just as a visual example of a solenoid. If current is passed through the solenoid, the magnetic field can be explored with a suspended bar magnet or similar probe
5H 15.40 - Magnetic Field Around Current Carrying Wires
Demonstrates: Magnetic field lines.
Description: Sprinkle iron filings on charged plate to get field lines.
5H 20.40 - Suspended Bar Magnet
Demonstrates: Magnetism.
Description: Suspended magnet can be deflected with another magnet.
5H 30.10 - Cathode Ray Tube
Demonstrates: Kinetic energy of particles.
Description: A windmill on a track in a glass tube spins when hit by electrons.
5H 30.20 - E/M Tube
Demonstrates: Effect of electric and magnetic fields on a beam of electrons.
Description: An electron gun emits a beam of electrons which can be bent into a circular or helical trajectory by the magnetic field of a Helmholtz coil. The beam is bright and clearly visible.
5H 30.30 - Crooke's Discharge Tube (Heating Effect)
Demonstrates: Heating effect.
Description: Discharge tube contains a thin metal target that becomes red hot after being bombarded by electrons.
5H 30.40 - Crooke's Discharge Tube (Magnetic Effect)
Demonstrates: Magnetic effect.
Description: Discharge tube has a florescent coated screen with a slit near the negative electrode. In a magnetic field a luminous line is bent upwards or downwards depending on the direction of the field lines.
5H 40.10 - Force on Parallel Wires
Demonstrates: Direction of magnetic force between currents.
Description: Two wires are given a current. If the current is in the same direction the wires attract each other. Opposite directions, the wires repel each other.
5H 40.30 - Jumping Wire in Magnetic Field
Demonstrates: Magnetic force on a current carrying wire.
Description: Place wire between poles of permanent magnet. When current is applied wire will either jump up or down depending on the direction of the current.
5H 50.10 - Einstein-de Haas Effect
Demonstrates: Angular momentum associated with the spin of electrons.
Description: A soft iron cylinder is suspended inside a solenoid. When current flows in the solenoid generating a magnetic field, electronic spins and associated angular momenta are aligned with the field causing a torque on the iron cylinder. When the current in the solenoid is reversed, the torque on the cylinder is reversed. A laser beam directed at a mirror on the suspension fiber indicates the small rotation caused by the torques.
5H 50.20 - Magnetic Torque
Demonstrates: Precession. Static Torque, Harmonic Oscillation, Magnetic Force
Description: A spinning billiard ball on a cushion of air precesses due to a magnetic field.
5K 10.15 - Induced EMF
Demonstrates: Motional EMF, Faraday's Law
Description: When a long wire is moved between the poles of a large permanent magnet, an emf is generated. The resulting current in the wire is detected with the galvanometer.
5K 10.20 - Induction Coil with Magnet & Galvanometer
Demonstrates: Faraday's Law
Description: Various coils of wire are attached to a galvanometer that registers a current (EMF)when a bar magnet is passed through them or when the coils pass through a large horseshoe magnet.
5K 10.40 - Open Transformer
Demonstrates: Faraday's Law.
Description: Primary Coil is connected to A/C power supply. Secondary coil is connected to light bulb. Magnetic field of the primary induces current in the secondary. Lift the secondary coil off the primary and the bulb goes out. The iron core can be inserted to amplify the effect.
5K 20.10 - Eddy Currents in Pendulum
Demonstrates: Eddy Currents, Faraday's Law, Lenz's Law
Description: When the solid aluminum paddle swings past the electromagnet, eddy currents are induced. The magnetic forces on these currents oppose the motion and the the pendulum stops. Very dramatic if the pendulum is released from a large height! When the paddle with closed slots is used, the path length and therefore resistance for the induced currents increases, producing a smaller damping. With the open slotted paddle, almost no damping occurs.
5K 20.25 - Magnets in Eddy Tubes
Demonstrates: Lenz's Law, Faraday's Law
Description: When a non-magnet is dropped down a copper tube, it falls freely. When a strong magnet is dropped down the same tube, currents are induced in the tube. The magnetic field of the induced currents oppose the field of the magnet, slowing it down. The magnet takes several seconds to drop through the tube. Viewed from the top, the magnet seems to float down.
5K 20.30 - Jumping Rings
Demonstrates: Lenz's Law, Faraday's Law, Magnetic Levitation
Description: A ring is placed atop the solenoid which has an iron core. When AC power is supplied to the solenoid, the changing magnetic flux induces a current in the metal ring. The induced magnetic field of the ring is opposite the field of the solenoid and the ring is repelled off into the air. A split ring does not allow current to flow, and does not fly off.
5K 30.10 - Transformer
Demonstrates: Voltage conversion and inductance.
Description: Voltage can be stepped up or down. As voltage is increased current is decreased.
5K 40.40 - DC Motor
Demonstrates: Direct current.
Description: When power is supplied to the electromagnet a DC motor is put into motion.
5K 40.45 - AC Generator
Demonstrates: Alternating current.
Description: Meter needle shows that current is alternating.
5K 40.80 - Hand Crank Generator
Demonstrates: Generators.
Description: Turn the crank on the generator to light the bulb.
5L 20.10 - LCR Circuit
Description: Inductor, capacitor, resistor in a series circuit
5N 10.30 - Antennas
Demonstrates: An oscillating electric dipole.
Description: Two antennas are hooked up to an oscilloscope and/or speaker. When the antennas are in phase there will be a signal/sound on the scope/speaker. If they are out of phase no signal/sound can be seen/heard on the scope/speaker. The oscilliscope image can be projected.
5N 10.30a - EM Waves - Propagation & Polarization
Demonstrates: Propagation and polarization in EM waves.
Description: The signal generator puts out a 433.92 MHz UHF frequency (69 cm) which is radiated via a half-wavelength dipole. A small light bulb is connected to a half-wavelength dipole to illustrate received power. The receiver can be picked up and moved around to show the falloff in power with distance, and the radiated beam pattern. The receiver can also be rotated 90 degrees to show how the radiation is polarized. Various wire grids and solid plates (metal, glass, plastic) can be inserted between the transmitter and receiver. And there is a dipole inside a water tank which can be used to show the change in wavelength when an EM wave is made to propagate through water. Good predictive demo.
Instructor Page
5N 20.20 - Induction Coil
Demonstrates: High voltage discharges.
Description: It arcs and sparks.
5N 20.25 - Small Tesla Coil
Demonstrates: Inductance.
Description: A high-voltage generator that uses inductance to light the bulb.
5N 20.30 - Large Tesla Coil
Demonstrates: PURPOSE: To demonstrate a tesla coil, including how magnetic induction and a resonant RLC circuit is used in the production of high-voltage high-frequency sparks.
Description: Our Tesla coil uses a 5000 volt transformer to charge a large oil capacitor. When the potential across the capacitor reaches the breakdown potential of the spark gap, breakdown across the gap occurs. The spark gap then becomes a conducting part of the RLC circuit, which resonates at a frequency of about 200 kilohertz. The large coil in the resonant circuit is the primary of the final transformer and the very fine coil is the secondary, producing about 200,000 volts at 200 kilohertz.
5N 30.10 - 3 cm Microwave Apparatus
Demonstrates: Electromagnetic propagation of microwaves.
Description: Hold dipole array at 90o angle to show polarization. Double and single slits are available for diffraction - swing receiver in an arc ~ 2 meters from slits. An aluminum sheet can be used to show shielding. Interference beats occur when sheet is held parallel to the center line between the transmitter and receiver.
6A 10.20 - Laser with Corner Mirror
Demonstrates: Reflection of light.
Description: A laser is projected onto a corner mirror which reflects the light on all sides.
6A 10.30 - Plane Mirrors
Demonstrates: Reflection and virtual images.
Description: Plane mirrors can be used to introduce the concept of ray tracing.
6A 10.40 - Folding Mirrors with Object
Demonstrates: Reflection of light.
Description: Two large mirrors will give 360 degrees reflected view of the object.
6A 20.10 - Bird in a Box
Demonstrates: Reflection of light.
Description: Bird is upside down in the box but the mirror flips image to right side up.
6A 20.20 - Concave and Convex Mirrors
Demonstrates: Reflection.
Description: These mirrors can give a virtual and a real image.
6A 20.40 - Large Spherical Mirror
Demonstrates: Virtual and real images.
Description: At focal point image flips and goes from virtual to real.
6A 40.10 - Optical Disk I
Demonstrates: Concave and convex lenses.
Description: Light enters one lens, is refracted then enters other lens and is refracted again.
6A 40.20 - Optical Disk II
Demonstrates: Refraction of light.
Description: Light enters the lens and is refracted.
6A 40.41 - Invisibility Fluid
Demonstrates: Index of Refraction.
Description: A mixture of CCl4 and C6H6 has an index of refraction similar to Pyrex glass. When a rod of soft glass is placed in fluid, it can be clearly seen. When a pyrex glass rod is placed in fluid it becomes "invisible."
6A 44.10 - Chalkboard Optics
Demonstrates: Light refraction.
Description: Light is beamed into the acrylic shapes which refract or reflect the light.
6A 44.20 - Total Internal Reflection
Demonstrates: Internal reflection at proper angle of incidence.
Description: Set up with laser and green acrylic sheet on optical bench.
6A 44.25 - Total Internal Reflection with Prisms
Demonstrates: Total internal reflection.
Description: A prism and a laser are used in this version of total internal reflection.
6A 44.30 - Total internal Reflection with Microwaves
Demonstrates: Total internal reflection.
Description: Prisms are used in this version of total internal reflection.
6A 44.40 - Laser & Fiber Optics
Demonstrates: Total internal reflection with fiber optics.
Description: Fiber optics used for household decoration.
6A 46.10 - Rainbow with Acrylic Sphere
Demonstrates: Light Refraction.
Description: An acrylic sphere on a stand that represents a rain drop. Use a 100 W point source light for the Sun and project on East wall.
6A 46.20 - Solar Spectrum
Demonstrates: Spectrum of the sun.
Description: The sun's image is brought into 103.
6A 60.30 - Microscope
Demonstrates: Enlargement of an object.
Description: The filament of a lamp on a Variac is observed through lenses.
6A 61.20 - Fish Eye Camera
Demonstrates: The concept of a camera.
Description: Same setup as the pinhole but a fish eye lens is added.
6A 61.30 - Pinhole Camera
Demonstrates: Shows how a camera works.
Description: A Polaroid set up is put on a tripod.
6A 65.10 - Camera Model
Demonstrates: A real image.
Description: Image is inverted on the screen at end of optical bench.
6A 70.10 - Compound Microscope
Demonstrates: Magnification of very small objects.
Description: A one person microscope.
6A 70.30 - Galilean Telescope
Demonstrates: Telescopes.
Description: Use +100mm and +500mm Leybold lenses. Set up on large optical bench.
6A 70.40 - Newtonian Telescope
Demonstrates: Telescopes.
Description: Use -100mm and +500mm Leybold lenses. Set up on large optical bench.
6A 70.50 - Projector Model
Demonstrates: Shows how a projector works.
Description: A slide is projected on to a screen.
6B 10.10 - Light Output as a Function of Input Power
Demonstrates: The light output is dependent on voltage but not on amperage.
Description: An auto light bulb is hooked to a variable power source, to a volt and ammeter.
6B 10.20 - Inverse Square Law with Light
Demonstrates: Inverse square law.
Description: A light meter and a 25 W bulb are used to illustrate the inverse square law.
Instructor Page
6B 10.30 - Point and Diffused Light Sources
Demonstrates: Umbra and Penumbra shadows.
Description: Use 100 W frosted bulb for diffuse source and a point source. Use 6" diameter aluminum grounding ball from Van de Graaff for object. Project shadows on wall or screen.
6B 40.20 - Luminosity and Flux
Demonstrates: Black body radiation, luminosity and flux.
Description: An acrylic setup with two light bulbs on dimmers. One bulb has a globe covering.
6B 40.30 - Black Body Radiation
Demonstrates: Infrared radiation from heat.
Description: A metal ring is heated and observed with a CCD camera. The ring will appear bright on the screen before a red glow can be seen by the naked eye.
6C 20.20 - Diffraction with Laser Source
Demonstrates: Light diffraction.
Description: Laser is set up on a large optical bench. Different diffraction slits cause each effect.
6D 15.10 - Frensel Bi-prism
Demonstrates: Splitting of an image with prisms.
Description: Laser beam is focused through lenses and a bi-prism. Image is seen on a screen.
6D 15.20 - Psychedelic Effects
Demonstrates: Just how bad the 60's really were.
Description: 12" polarizer is mounted on a geared motor with variable speed. Small polarizer and image disk are placed in the slide holder.
6D 20.30 - Grating Spectrometer
Demonstrates: Spectrogram of UV light.
Description: Spectrogram is projected onto a screen.
6D 20.40 - Laser with Interference Patters
Demonstrates: More slits causes pattern to be brighter.
Description: A multiple slit slide is placed in the slide holder to achieve different patterns.
6D 20.50 - White Light with Gratings
Demonstrates: Spectrum of white light.
Description: Use an incandescent bulb with the pass out slits.
6D 20.74 - Interference
6D 20.74 - Interference
Demonstrates: Interference. Bright / dark spots are the result of constructive / destructive interference of the reflected waves on the observer’s retinas.
Description: Paint can is raised to make wet paint on laser target. When students hold still, the pattern constantly shimmers due to the motion of the scattering centers (latex beads) in the wet paint. Possibly the dynamics are angle-dependent, but this hasn’t been explored. It’s fun to watch.
6D 30.10 - Newton's Rings
Demonstrates: Constructive and destructive interference patterns in color.
Description: Colored rings display interference patterns on a screen. Thumbscrews change patterns.
6D 30.20 - Film Interference
Demonstrates: Interference patterns.
Description: Light reflects off a soap film and projected. Interference patterns are visible.
6D 30.30 - Thin Film of Air
Demonstrates: Interference patterns.
Description: A film of air between two pieces of glass creates interference patterns.
6D 40.10 - Michelson Interferometer with Laser
Demonstrates: Interferometry.
Description: Unit is set up on a small optical bench with the interferometer on a separate stand. Place demo about 15 to 20 feet from screen for best result.
6D 40.20 - Michelson Interferometer with Microwaves
Demonstrates: Interferometry.
Description: Unit sets up on particle board base with guide strips to simplify alignment.
6D 40.30 - Pohl's Mica Sheet Interferometer
Demonstrates: Interference patterns.
Description: Interference pattern produced by mica sheet is displayed on to a screen.
6F 10.10 - Projector with Color Filters and Gratings
Demonstrates: Spectra shifting with color slides.
Description: Spectra will shift when different color slides are projected.
6F 10.20 - Von Guericke Effect (Colored Shadows)
Demonstrates: Color perception by the brain.
Description: Two projectors are used to get a colored square with a "white" spot in the center.
6F 10.30 - Color Mixing
Demonstrates: Color addition.
Description: Three projectors with color slide filters are projected so the circles overlap slightly.
6F 10.40 - Bidwell's Disk
Demonstrates: Complimentary colors.
Description: When the disk is rotated correctly the red light will appear green.
6F 10.50 - Color Wheel and Various Optical Disks with Strobe
Demonstrates: Optical Illusions.
Description: Disks are attached to a motor with variable speed control. Shine hand held strobe onto the disk. Color wheel turns gray when spun fast enough. Each wheel has a unique effect. Changing the flash rate changes the effect.
6F 30.10 - Prisms
Demonstrates: Chromatic dispersion.
Description: Source light is broken up into its component parts.
6F 30.11 - The Visible Spectrum
6F 30.11 - The Visible Spectrum
Demonstrates: Composition of the Visible spectrum
Description: Use a prism and a bright continuum light source to demonstrate breaking up white light.
6F 40.10 - Bryant's Sunset Effect
Demonstrates: Refraction of light due to dust particles.
Description: A gray projector and an aquarium filled with water. Show class image with clean water then add creamer to show "sunset" on the wall. "Sun's" image will become redder as more creamer is added.
6F 40.15 - Bryant's Sunset with Polarizers
Demonstrates: Scattering effects of sunlight by the atmosphere.
Description: Use a Prado slide projector to send light through a water filled aquarium on to a wall.
6H 10.10 - Polarization
Demonstrates: Polarization.
Description: Use small insert optical bench with the Beseler projector. There are several slides.
6H 10.15 - Polarization with Big Polarizers
Demonstrates: Polarization.
Description: Use Fresnel spotlight and large polarizers.
6H 10.20 - 3 cm Microwave Apparatus
Demonstrates: Polarization and diffraction.
Description: Hold dipole array at 90 degree angle to show polarization. Double and single slits are available for diffraction - swing receiver in an arc ~ 2 meters from slits. An aluminum sheet can be used to show shielding. Interference beats occur when sheet is held parallel to the center line between the transmitter and receiver.
6H 10.40 - Polarization.
Demonstrates: Polarization.
Description: Second filter detects light polarized by the first filter.
6H 20.10 - Brewster's Angle
Demonstrates: Zero light intensity of a reflected ray at a special angle of incidence.
Description: Light from projector is reflected off glass to give Brewster's angle.
6H 30.10 - 1/4 Wavelength Plates
Demonstrates: Polarization.
Description: Two polarizers are set to not allow light through. Then 1/4 wavelength plate is inserted between the polarizers and light reaches screen.
6H 30.40 - Specific Rotation
Demonstrates: Two 1/4 wavelength plates can be used.
Description: Sugar dissolved in water will rotate the plane of polarized light.
6H 35.15 - Birefringence
6H 35.15 - Birefringence
Demonstrates: Polarization with crystals.
Description: Incident light is polarized without absorption or reflection by the polarizer.
6H 35.20 - Chromatransparency
Demonstrates: Color change due to polarization.
Description: A "transparent" image is placed between two polarizers.
6J 10.10 - Land's Retinex Anomaly
Demonstrates: The eye's perception of color and tone.
Description: Of two equal gray areas, the one surrounded by darker areas will appear lighter.
6J 11.10 - Purkinje Effect
Demonstrates: How the human eye responds to color.
Description: The eye responds less to red than it does to blue at low light levels.
6Q 20.20 - Spinning Bicycle Wheel with Projection
Demonstrates: Optical illusions.
Description: At the proper rate of spin the wheel will become a screen for the image.
6Q 20.30 - Strobe Light with After Effects Wheels
Demonstrates: Optical illusions.
Description: Two large black and white disks. When a strobe light is shone on the spinning wheels the pattern travels. Change strobe frequency or motor speed to change effect.
6Q 20.70 - Large Spiral Wheel
Demonstrates: Optical illusions.
Description: Large wheel with lines that spiral in or out depending on the motor direction.
7A 10.10 - Photoelectric Effect
Demonstrates: Electrons moved by UV light
Description: A zinc plate is charged with a plastic rod and fur then discharged with UV light.
7A 10.11 - Photoelectric Effect
Demonstrates: Electrons liberated by UV light.
Description: UV light is shone onto a zinc plate attached to an electroscope.
7A 60.05 - Field Emission Electron Microscope (FEEM)
Demonstrates: Field Emission Microscope, Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Mechanical Tunneling, Tunneling.
Description: The Field Emission Electron Microscope (FEEM) demonstrates quantum mechanical tunneling of electrons. The microscope was invented by Erwin Muller in 1936 [E. W. Muller. Z. Phys. 102, 734 (1936)]. The magnification of a typical FEEM is approximately 500,000X. Its resolution is about 20 Angstroms.
7A 60.10 - Electron Diffraction
Demonstrates: Diffraction pattern of electrons.
Description: The electron diffraction tube is a complete unit.
7A 60.15 - Deflection Tube
Demonstrates: Cathode rays and electron deflection.
Description: A steam of electrons can be deflected by an electromagnetic or electrostatic field.
7B 10.10 - Line Spectra and Student Gratings
Demonstrates: Ionization of gas.
Description: Tube stand holds several tubes that can be lit one at a time.
7B 10.20 - Diffraction with Pass-out Slits
Demonstrates: Diffraction of light.
Description: Use single Geissler tube set up with one, two and three slit "pass-out" gratings.
7D 10.10 - Inverse Square Law and Shielding
Demonstrates: Radioactive shielding and the inverse square law.
Description: A Geiger counter is used to show the inverse square law and how to shield a source.
7D 30.20 - Cosmic Rays
Demonstrates: Counts cosmic rays.
Description: Counter can be set to sound off for single or 2 fold.
7D 30.60 - Cloud Chamber
Demonstrates: Alpha particla emission, cosmic ray trace
Description: Cloud chamber
7E 10.10 - Spark Chamber
Demonstrates: Cosmic rays.
Description: A spark is emitted when a cosmic ray is detected.
8A 10.10 - Heliocentric Model
Demonstrates: Planets revolving around the Sun.
Description: A simple model of our solar system.
8A 10.25 - Phases of the Moon
Demonstrates: Phases of the moon
Description: Wireless camera is the earth (POV), the moon is a globe that rotate around each other with a fixed light source (sun) at some given distance. As the moon and earth roatate phases of the moon against the light source can be seen.
8A 10.25a - Sun, Moon & Earth
Demonstrates: The Earth's orbit around the Sun and the Moon's orbit around the Earth.
Description: A spotlight is the Sun, a white ball is the Moon and an Earth ball completes the trio.
8A 10.30 - Bag of Planets
8A 10.30 - Bag of Planets
Demonstrates: Scale of the Planets and Solar System Description: This is a scale model of the solar system that can be discussed in class to give some indication of relative sizes of planets and planetary orbits. Start with Jupiter being the size of a tennis ball, then scale other planets to match. Sun ends up as a yellow beach ball.
Description: Body Diameter Dist_from_Sun Object diam dist (R_E) (AU) (cm) (m) Sun 110 0 beach ball 62 0 Mercury 0.38 0.387 gray bead 0.2 25 m (entry) Venus 0.95 0.723 white marble 0.5 47 m (bike racks) Earth 1 1 blue marble 0.6 66 m (picnic table) Mars 0.53 1.52 small marble 0.3 100 m (ECE) Jupiter 11.2 5.2 tennis ball 6.3 340 m (duck pond) Saturn 9.4 9.59 ping-pong ball 5.3 630 m (PandA) Uranus 4.0 19.2 big marble 2.2 1.3 km (isotopes) Neptune 3.8 30.0 big marble 2.1 1.9 km (The Pitt) Pluto 0.18 40 bb 0.1 2.6 km (airport) Eris 0.24 68 bb 0.1 4.5 km (end of runway)
8A 10.40 - Martian Atmosphere
8A 10.40 - Martian Atmosphere
Demonstrates: The atmosphere of Mars and how it differs from that of Earth. Also demonstrates hases of matter. Description: Obtain about 1 pound of dry ice (carbon dioxide) in pellet form, a plastic bottle, and some balloons.
Description: Obtain about 1 pound of dry ice (carbon dioxide) in pellet form, a plastic bottle, and some balloons
8A 10.80 - Celestial Sphere Model
Demonstrates: The concept of the celestial sphere.
Description: A celestial globe with Earth at the center. Get this from the Astro Labs.
8B 10.10 - Sunspot on Overhead Projector
Demonstrates: Sunspots on the surface of the sun analogy.
Description: Frosted lightbulb acts as a sunspot with a relative cooler temperature to the sun (overhead projector)
8B 10.50 - Ninja Balls (Supernova)
Demonstrates: Outer shells of a star being blown off during a supernova explosion.
Description: Superballs are attached by a cage. When it is dropped the top two balls fly off.
8B 20.10 - Model of a Pulsar
Demonstrates: Non-isotropic emission, pulsation
Description: Put a flashlight on a spinning motor. Make it so that one can change the rotation rate. Demonstrate pulsation. Play sound clips from various pulsars.
8B 30.20 - The Visible Spectrum
8B 30.20 - The Visible Spectrum
Demonstrates: Composition of the Visible spectrum
Description: Use a prism and a bright continuum light source to demonstrate breaking up white light.
8C 10.10 - One Dimensional Expanding Universe
Demonstrates: The expansion of a 1-D universe.
Description: Seven "planets" are attached to rubber tubing that can be stretched out.
8C 10.10a - Three Dimensional Expanding Universe
Demonstrates: 3 dimensional expansion from a central point
Description: Hoberman sphere expanding and contracting
8C 10.30 - Closed and Open Universe Models
Demonstrates: How a closed and an open Universe would look.
Description: A black ball and a green spool represent two theories of our Universe's shape.
8C 20.10 - Black Hole and Warped Space
Demonstrates: Shows how space is warped by gravity.
Description: A rubber sheet is warped when a metal ball is placed on it.